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Glossary term

Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD)

The human growth hormone helps us develop healthy muscle as a child and teen, but it is also plays a role in maintaining healthy bodies and proper muscle mass and fat as adults. When someone is lacking production of the growth hormone, they have a condition called adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD). This condition requires treatment through hormone replacement therapy because of all the essential properties of the growth hormone, from muscles and fat, to managing cholesterol levels, bone density, and proper brain function. When produced properly, the body’s pituitary gland makes the growth hormone and releases it directly into the bloodstream.


Albuterol

Albuterol is typically diagnosed to those who suffer from asthma. It is known as a short acting beta-2 agonist, also known as a SABA. In most cases, Albuterol comes in an inhaler that works fast but is not a permanent solution. When in an inhaler, the sufferer inhales from it with the albuterol medication inside. This opens up the airways during an asthma attack, which occurs when the muscles in the airways become too tight. It takes about 3-5 minutes for albuterol to work through the airways and relax the muscles. Albuterol is also commonly diagnosed for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).


Androgenic

Androgenic is the term used to define the development of characteristics in male. This can be relatedto developing muscle mass, genital organs, or body hair. It is an adjective of the word androgen, which describes male hormones, primarily androsterone and testosterone, which are responsible for developing male organs and hair. The androgenic stage of development in males begins during puberty, which is usually between 12 and 14 years of age. The most common sign of this period of time in males is a change in their voice, which becomes deeper. One of the major developments includes the growth of the testes and adrenal glace, which sit on top of the kidney.


Andropause

Andropause, also known as male menopause, is the male equivalent of menopause, happening laterin life. Men in their 40s often go through various changes which are encouraged by the decrease in testosterone hormones and an increase in estrogen hormones. Similar to the hormone changes in women around this age called menopause, andropause is known as a mid-life crisis in men. This is when the hormone levels change and men have side effects like depression, loss of muscle mass, lowered sexual interest and drive, chronic fatigue, lowered concentration, and higher fat mass. Men going through andropause are also at a higher risk for heart disease and diabetes.


Androstenedione

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone that is produced in men with 19 carbons. The hormone is produced in the gonads and adrenal glands as a step in the biochemical processes. This hormone is needed for further production of estrogen, estradiol, and testosterone hormones. It may also be located in other parts of the body, such as the plasma and sent to tissues of estrogens and testosterone. Androstenedione comes from certain conversions in the body, including the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone. After this process and it starts producing in the body, it is then converted to other hormones, like testosterone and estrogen.


Anastrozole

Anastrozole is often prescribed to women that are in the early stages of breast cancer and going throughmenopause at the same time. The drug is classified as an aromatase inhibitor that helps to block the enzyme that causes a disruption with the hormone testosterone, converting it to estrogen. It is highly successful, blocking the conversion to estrogen in about 90 percent of the cases. As a drug, Anastrozole is given to women who are within their pre or post-menopausal stages and in early stages of breast cancer as it helps to block the hormone conversions that can worsen their condition.


Armour Thyroid

Armour thyroid is a combination thyroid drug of T3 and T4 thyroid formulas. The drug is an excellentweigh to treat obesity in individuals that have hypothyroidism, a common cause of obesity. Underneath the Adam’s apple area of the throat is the endocrine gland called a thyroid gland. It distributes thyroxine, a hormone that works to control metabolism in the body. If there is a low level of metabolism, the body takes longer to burn calories for energy, leading to extreme fatigue and weight gain. Many people with hypothyroidism have a low metabolism level, obesity, fatigue, confusion, menstrual issues, dry skin, and problems concentrating.


Aromasin Exemestane

Aromasin is the brand name for the drug exemestane, which is an aromatase inhibitor to block enzymesthat turn testosterone hormones into estrogen hormones. It is another drug used in hormone therapy, often for women that are in the pre-menopausal stage. It can also be used for other purposes, such as for treating acne. Like other drugs of its class, Aromasin works about 90 percent of the time. The dosage might need to be increased depending on the person. Some common side effects of taking Aromasin include swelling, irritation, stomach upset, hot flashes, vision issues, hives, short of breath or chest pains.


Bio-identical Hormones

Bio-identical hormones are the opposed of synthetic hormones, though they work just like hormones already made in your body. They are molecule-by-molecule identical to the body’s natural hormones and a step up from synthetic ones. Bio-identical hormones are prescribed for hormone imbalances and for hormone therapy, including versions of estrogen, estradiol, estriol, testosterone, and progesterone for me and women. They are used to imitate these natural hormones that are usually produced in the body, but for some reason, are not produced rapidly enough. They are an excellent alternative to synthetic hormones, which can be hard on the body and have long-term side effects associated with them.


B-Complex

A common drug prescribed for vitamin deficiency is a B-complex. This is found in prescription and over the-counter drugs and includes different B-group vitamins. The body needs a sufficient amount of vitamin B group nutrients to function properly. One example of a vitamin in the B-complex supplement is Niacin, which is in every single cell of the body. If you suffer from a niacin deficiency, it can lead to insomnia, exhaustion, cramping, loss of appetite, dermatitis, mental issues, indigestion, and muscle soreness. A B-complex helps replace the missing nutrients of niacin and other B vitamins. It is usually a capsule or tablet taken just once a day.


Bone Density

The term bone density is used to describe how much volume of bone tissue is in the body. Bone density in humans is measured using a quantitative computed tomogram, which is a type of x-ray. Bone density, which may also be called bone mineral density, is talking about how much bone tissue matter is in every square centimeter of your bones. It is often measures to find out the risk of conditions like osteoporosis and others that make you more susceptible to fractures and breaks. Procedure called densitometry can accurately measure bone density in a medical clinic or hospital setting.


Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)

Branched chain amino acids, or BCAAs, are types of amino acids that have side chains with carbon atoms bound to multiple carbon atoms, called a branch. There are nine essential amino acids that every human should have for their body to function properly, BCAAs being among them. The branched chain amino acids take up approximately 35 percent of the amino acids needed in muscle proteins and 40 percent of mammal preformed amino acids. They are often used for helping burn victims recover. There have also been studies of patients with trauma or sepsis that received BCAAs in dietary form to help them recover.


Bromocriptine

Bromocriptine is a type of prolactin inhibitor that is used in hormone replacement therapy. It is usually prescribed to help stop prolactin that is common among patients with gynocomastia, a condition that causes abnormally large breasts in males. It can also help improve the amount of dopamine that the body produces, which helps reduce degenerative and age-related medical conditions. The highest success with Bromocriptine was found when giving a maximum dose following hormone replacement therapy and a full cycle of steroids. This helps to stimulate the hypothalamus pituitary testicular axis (HPTA) in the body. Adults over 40 that deal with lack of dopamine may be prescribed this drug to help replace it.


Cialis (Tadalafil)

Cialis is a drug that is prescribed to men who are suffering from erectile dysfunction. It lasts in the body for about 36 hours after taking it, and usually only prescribed to men with chronic erectile dysfunction or severe impotence, as opposed to acute impotence. Cialis is classified as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which is in the same classification of drugs as Viagra and Levitra, brand names for erectile dysfunction drugs. They all use the same basic formula with the same success rate. Cialis is a tablet that is taken orally and has the ability to last up to three days, which is why it is sometimes called the weekend pill.


Clenbuterol

Clenbuterol, which is sold under the names Ventipulmin or Spiropent, is prescribed to patients that have a breathing disorder. It is a symathomimetic amine that is prescribed to be used as a bronchodilator or decongestant for chronic breathing disorders like asthma. Some countries have approved Clenbuterol to be prescribed for patients with asthma as a bronchodilator, though only with a prescription from a doctor. It is usually not sold over-the-counter, though some drugs have off-label use similar to clenbuterol that is used for weight loss not approved by a doctor. It has been illegally used as a performance enhancement drug, with athletes banned from their sport in 2010 for using the drug incorrectly.


Clenbuterol

Clenbuterol, which is sold under the names Ventipulmin or Spiropent, is prescribed to patients that have a breathing disorder. It is a symathomimetic amine that is prescribed to be used as a bronchodilator or decongestant for chronic breathing disorders like asthma. Some countries have approved Clenbuterol to be prescribed for patients with asthma as a bronchodilator, though only with a prescription from a doctor. It is usually not sold over-the-counter, though some drugs have off-label use similar to clenbuterol that is used for weight loss not approved by a doctor. It has been illegally used as a performance enhancement drug, with athletes banned from their sport in 2010 for using the drug incorrectly.


Clomiphene

Clomiphene, which is often prescribed under the name Clomid, stimulates a release of hormones needed to encourage ovulation in women, and helps with the stimulation of healthy sperm in men. The drug is used to help stimulate the natural production of the hormone testosterone, which is needed for both men and women and their reproductive systems. It helps encourage the production of testosterone in the body and reduces the surge of estrogen, with a 90 percent success rate. It is dose dependent, which means people who take it for a certain amount of time eventually need to increase the dose to experience the same effects.


Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10, which may be abbreviated CoQ10 or CoQ is a drug within the quinone chemical group. The number 10 in the drug name is talking about how many isoprenyl chemical subunits are in the tail of the drug. This is an oil-soluble supplement that is given to patients for a wide number of reasons, including helping increase energy, helping both men and women and their reproductive system, and having a healthier body overall. It is one of the most commonly sold dietary supplements in the United States, just behind multivitamins and omega-3 supplements. It helps with more serious conditions as well, like preventing heart disease and other cardiovascular issues.


Cortisol

Cortisol, which sometimes goes by the name of hydrocortisone, is a steroid hormone that is typically produced naturally in the body’s adrenal gland. Some people with conditions relating to an autoimmune disease are not producing enough cortisol in their body and prescribed hydrocortisone cream or injections for mild to moderate infections. When the body is stressed, cortisol is released into the body, as well as a respond to a low level of blood glucocorticoids in the body. The main functions of cortisol are to suppress the immune system, help with the carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, and increase blood sugar.


Creatine (monohydrate)

Creatine is a type of organic nitrogenous acid that is produced naturally in the body. It provides properenergy for the muscles and occurs during a natural process in the vertebrates. The history of creatine goes back to Michel Eugene Chevreul who figured out it was a part of the skeletal muscle in 1832. Amino acids in the kidney and liver are where creatine is produced from and is used for transporting blood for the body’s muscles. About 95 percent of the creatine in the body is within the skeletal muscle region. There are creatine muscles that can be given for increasing strength and the maximum production of muscles in women and men, though there are some side effects.


Creatinine

Creatinine, not to be confused with creatine, is a term used for the breaking down of creatine phosphate found in the muscles. It is supposed to be produced naturally at a consistent rate, but this depends largely on the person’s muscle mass. The kidneys help filter creatinine out of the body, but if this does not happen properly, the blood levels in the body can rise. One of the more common and serious causes of lack of creatinine production in the body is renal dysfunction. Men often have higher amounts of creatinine in their body due to having higher skeletal mass. Vegetarians have a tendency to have less muscle mass, therefore they often have lower creatinine levels in the body. Supplements for getting more creatinine are available for those that need it.


DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)

Dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA, is a naturally-producing steroid hormone in the body. It is usuallyproduced in the adrenal glands but can also be found in the brain and the gonads. The levels of DHEA that are produced in the body tend to decrease with age, so adults over 40 benefit the most from these supplements. DHEA supplements are given for a variety of reasons, from a decrease in the natural steroid hormone, to athletes wanting to reduce their fat and build muscle mass. It is also sometimes used as a natural anti-depressant. Women who are pregnant or nursing are not advised to take DHEA supplements.


Dostinex (Cabergoline)

Dostinex, which is prescribed under the name Cabergoline, is a drug often used in hormone replacement therapy. It helps to treat or prevent gynocomastia, which causes breasts to grow in males, usually during puberty. This growth is from an overabundance of prolactin being produced in the body. When males take dostinex, the prolactin growth slows down. Dostinex can also be used as hormone replacement therapy for women who have breast milk when it is unwanted or infertility issues due to an overabundance of prolactin in their body. The medication is taken orally with or without food, usually just a couple times a week.


Dostinex (Cabergoline)

Dostinex, which is prescribed under the name Cabergoline, is a drug often used in hormone replacement therapy. It helps to treat or prevent gynocomastia, which causes breasts to grow in males, usually during puberty. This growth is from an overabundance of prolactin being produced in the body. When males take dostinex, the prolactin growth slows down. Dostinex can also be used as hormone replacement therapy for women who have breast milk when it is unwanted or infertility issues due to an overabundance of prolactin in their body. The medication is taken orally with or without food, usually just a couple times a week.


Erectile Dysfunction

Men who have erectile dysfunction have problems getting an erection, keeping an erection, or achieving ejaculation. It is a frustrating and embarrassing condition for many men to have erectile dysfunction, also called impotence. There are a variety of treatments for this condition, depending largely on the cause. If stress or mental issues are causing erectile dysfunction, lifestyle changes like counseling or therapy, stress relief methods, and a change in diet or exercise usually suffice. For other men, it is a physical issue made better with medications. While erectile dysfunction is more common in older males, it can happen at any age, and be either acute or chronic.


Essential Fatty Acids

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a type of fatty acids that exist in humans and certain animals. They areessential for proper health because the body itself can’t produce it naturally, therefore they need to focus on getting them through healthy food sources. The term essential fatty acid is used for a fatty acid that needs a biological process, rather than organically producing them in the body. There are two main types of EFAs that a human needs, including omega-3 fatty acids or alpha-linolenic acid, and omega-6 fatty acids. Foods that are considered healthy generally provide essential fatty acids, such as certain fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and fish like salmon and tuna.


Estradiol

Estradiol is a potent and bioactive estrogen that is found to occur naturally in the body. As an oral supplement, it is usually prescribed to women for symptoms and side effects of menopause, though some men also take estradiol for hormone deficiencies. Since estradiol is the main type of estrogen hormone produced in the woman’s ovary before menopause, it is essential to get the right balance to avoid severe side effects of menopause. There is also a hormone in men called the human growth hormone, which develops in the prostate gland and associated with estradiol.


Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar)

Often going by the brand name Propecia or Proscar, Finasteride is an enzyme that works closely with the testosterone hormone in order to convert it to di-hydro-testosterone (DHT). When there are high amounts of DHT in the male body, it creates a high risk for prostate cancer, with levels rise as men get older. Finasteride is used for different conditions in a man, from the growth of hair to treating an over-sized prostate. When it is for male pattern baldness, finasteride is sold under the brand name Propecia, while the brand name Proscar is for finasteride that is treating an enlarged prostate and preventing prostate cancer.


Free Radicals

Free radicals are groups of atoms in the body that have an unpaired number of electrons. When this happens, they become reactive and can destroy DNA and tissues. Free radicals are produced in the body naturally by metabolizing food and oxygen, along with exposure to sunlight, environmental conditions, and tobacco smoke. There are antioxidants in the body meant to protect it from free radicals doing any real damage. The most dangerous part of free radicals in the body is the way they affect the cell membrane and certain aspects of the DNA. Antioxidants are needed if the body is not producing enough to protect against free radicals.


Fluoxymesterone

Fluoxymesterone is one of the hormones in the body in a class called androgenic hormones. This is similar to the male hormone testosterone, and is often prescribed for males during hormone replacement therapy if they do not have enough testosterone production in their body. If male puberty is delayed, fluoxymesterone can be prescribed to increase the amount of testosterone in the body. Women also have testosterone and take this medication as one of the treatment options for breast cancer. It is a tablet taken orally up to four times a day. Anyone taking fluoxymesterone needs to be careful about other medications they are taking and the potential negative reactions.


Genotropin Miniquick

Genotropin Miniquick is a type of device that helps administer a dose of genotropin lyophilized powder. This type of medication requires an injection, with one dose in every two-chamber cartridge. There are about ten different dose sizes to choose from with the genotropin miniquick. It is a disposable device that you throw out into a sharps container or other safe container once the medication has been properly administered. It is often used for growth hormones in children or adults. Children with growth failure use a genotropin miniquick as long-term treatment for lack of growth hormones. It is also commonly used for adults as a growth hormone, injecting it into the abdomen, thigh or buttocks.


Glycemic Index

The glycemic index is a tool used to rate the insulin production in various types of foods. There are foods that have a high GI, or high glycemic index, and foods with a low GI, or low glycemic index. It is important to know the glycemic index of foods for certain medical conditions, such as diabetes. The measurement is done by looking at how many grams of carbohydrates are in a food source that can raise the individual’s blood glucose level while eating it, as compared to pure glucose. Some foods, like watermelon, have a high glycemic index but their glycemic load is low, so they are still considered a healthy option.


Glycogen

Glycogen is the primary carbohydrate that is stored in animal cells and animal food sources. It is usually produced in the liver, and occasionally the muscle cells. Glycogen is gradually released into the body after converting to glucose, in order to improve circulation of the body. Glycogen is considered a branch of glucose, offering energy storage for animals and humans. With humans, it functions as a long-term energy storage on a secondary level when in the muscles and liver. When the muscle cells converts it to glucose, it helps provide energy for the central nervous system.


Gonadotropins

The protein hormones that come from the gonadotrope cells in the pituitary glands of vertebrates are called gonadotropins. There are two parts to gonadotropins, including the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH). The third possible gonadotropin is the chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Gonadotropins are released with the hormone called a GnRH from the hypothalamus and nucleus. The gonads, which are ovaries in women and testes in men, are the main source of both the FSH and LH gonadotropin hormones. They are needed for reproducing and having an efficient amount of testosterone and estrogen hormones in the body.


HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin)

The human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormone is produced when a woman becomes pregnant. Immediately after the embryo is developed, the HCG hormone begins building up in her system. This is the hormone detected by urine and blood tests in order to reveal a positive pregnancy test. There are also other reasons someone might have a high level of HCG in their system, however, including if there is a tumor in the body. Tumors are linked to high amounts of HCG in the body when there is no pregnancy. For pregnant women, the hormone continues to multiple every 24 hours, which helps doctors know her pregnancy is advancing properly.


HDL (high-density lipoprotein)

High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, is considered the good type of cholesterol. There are two types of cholesterol; HDL and LDL. LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is considered a bad cholesterol, where the levels should be low. With HDL, it is essential cholesterol that helps protect the body against cardiovascular issues like heart disease and stroke. Researchers have also found HDL to carry cholesterol from the arteries and return it to the liver so that it slows down buildup of plaque in the heart and body. A healthy person with a good cholesterol has a decent balance between LDL and HDL in their system. Both are important, but the HDL should be higher and the LDL should be lower.


Hormone

The term hormone is used when there is a certain chemical produced by the body and released into a gland or cell of the body. Hormones are responsible for sending messages to different parts of the body, as a messenger service supplying important signals. There are many different hormones in the body, from growth hormones to those that regulate metabolism, are important in conception or increase the sex drive, as well as hormones that reduce or increase hunger cravings, impact the person’s mood, or affect the immune system. Hormones are also there to prepare the body for important stages in life, including parenting, menopause, andropause (menopause in men) and puberty.


Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy is a type of treatment that is intended to replace or balance improper hormone levels in the body. If someone has an insufficient amount of hormones and it is affecting them in one way or another, hormone replacement therapy is done. This is often prescribed with symptoms associated with aging, including curbing the side effects of menopause in women or andropause in men. During menopause, women experience hot flashes, dizziness, vaginal dryness, and irritability. Hormone replacement therapy helps treat and reduce these side effects. Other types of hormone replacement therapy treatments are done when the body is lacking hormones like estrogen or testosterone.


Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

Men or women that are dealing with high blood pressure or fluid retention are often prescribed a drug called hydrochlorothiazide, or HCTZ. This medication helps control water retention or high blood pressure by increasing how much water and salt goes from the blood to the kidneys, thus lowering blood volume. There are different brand names included in the prescriptions for HCTZ. Common side effects of taking this drug include low blood potassium levels, nausea or stomach upset, vomiting, and dizziness. Due to its effects with water retention caused by heart disease and other medical conditions, HCTZ is also called the water pill.


Hypogonadism

Hypogonadism is a condition where the testes or ovaries are not producing enough hormones, or no hormones at all. This occurs in the gonads, which includes testes in men and ovaries in women. They usually produce a variety of hormones for various purposes, including progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and estrogen. If they are lacking these hormones, the conditions is referred to as hypogonadism. In women, hypogonadism is treated by replacing the missing progesterone and estradiol, while men receive testosterone replacement therapy for the condition. Treatment is important as it improves fertility, reduces body fat and increases muscle, increases libido, and improves their overall wellbeing.


IGF-1

IGF-1, or insulin-like growth factor 1, is a type of essential protein that is found in humans with the IGF1 gene. It is sometimes called a sulfation factor and was originally discovered by scientists in the 1970s. The IGF-1 hormone is very similar to how insulin is structured, and is important for proper growth of children and anabolic benefits in adults. The hormone is produced consistently throughout someone’s life, with the highest rates occurring during the growth spurt following puberty in men and women. Naturally, the lowest levels of IGF-1 occur when humans are first born and during old age.


Insulin

The pancreas secretes an anabolic hormone called insulin. Insulin is an important part of the body’s system as it helps to keep metabolism of fats and carbohydrates at a proper level before they convert the glucose to glycogen. This is needed in order to lower the person’s blood glucose level. If someone does not produce enough insulin in their body, they are at risk for conditions like diabetes, and then need to take insulin every day to lower their blood glucose level and avoid more serious complications. Insulin is one of the oldest known proteins in the body and provides a back-up energy source.


Ketosis

Ketosis is a term used for a high level of ketones in the body. Ketones are stored in the body and used for energy, where they can fuel the breakdown of the body’s fat reserves. If the levels of ketones in the body rise, it is the result of glycogen in the liver going down, which then causes ketosis. Ketosis is usually generalized to the whole body, as opposed to just one part of the body. While usually a natural process, ketosis can also be caused deliberately as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. Ketosis is frequently the result of switching to a low-carbohydrate diet.


L-Arginine

There are a number of amino acids that are needed for proper health, and L-Arginine is one of them. It has many benefits, with its main function being related to improving exercise and helping to treat erectile dysfunction. With the right amount of L-arginine in the body, it helps stimulate the growth hormones that children need during puberty and beyond. It is also used for healing sepsis, burns, and trauma. There have also recently been studies that show a positive result of using L-arginine to help with cardiovascular disease, lowing LDL cholesterol and lowering blood pressure. Men often take L-arginine to help with infertility issues.


L-Carnitine

L-carnitine is a type of supplement that is prescribed as an antioxidant and supplement for a wide range of issues. L-carnitine is the active form of carnitine, which is a type of ammonium compound found in the amino acids of the body. It is used for transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria and used for metabolism energy. L-carnitine is often sold as a vitamin or supplement and found in drug stores. As an antioxidant, it helps to protect against oxidative stress. It is also given to men with fertility issues or who are trying to conceive, or anyone that wants to get more energy.


L-Glutamine

L-Glutamine is one of the amino acids that occurs naturally in the human body, found in plasma and muscle. It is also the most abundant of all the amino acids. About 60 percent of amino acids in skeletal muscle cells is due to L-glutamine. L-glutamine moves around freely throughout the body, moving nitrogen along with it, which makes it a primary nitrogen donor. In order to build muscle, you must have a proper balance of L-glutamine. Because the body can make it on its own, it is considered a non-essential amino acid. However, recent studies have shown it may be essential due to benefits with strength, improving physical stress, and helping with recovery.


Lasix (Furosemide)

Lasix, which is sold under the brand name Furosemide, is known as a water pill. It is a non-potassium diuretic that helps people lose weight and is often linked to other uses. It is extremely important to only take this drug as directed by a doctor because overuse of Lasix can cause mineral loss and water loss. A doctor should be notified if you are taking this drug and suddenly experience muscle cramps or weakness, dry mouth, confusion, dizziness, or nausea. Some people are allergic to the drug, with signs like difficulty breathing, hives, or swelling.


Levitra (Vardenafil)

Levitra, or Vardenafil as the trade name, is a drug that is often used to help with sexual function problems in male. It helps with erectile dysfunction and impotence, and works in a combination with sexual stimulation. Levitra is in the same class of drugs as Viagra and Cialis, helping to increase the amount of blood flow going to the penis. It helps a man get an erection and maintain his erection through sexual intercourse. It is not meant for acute impotence, but more chronic cases. One pill is taken by mouth about an hour before sexual intercourse and you should wait 24 hours before taking a second dose.


Libido

The term libido is used to describe a person’s sexual drive and sexual interest. It originally began as the word libidinous, which means to have lust, but in 1913 Sigmund Freud used the term to describe the psychic energy of sexual instinct, which is when it officially became a word to describe the sexual drive. Since a person’s libido is determined by many different factors, possible treatments for a low libido vary. The cause of a low libido can be due to psychological or emotional issues, relationship problems, low self-esteem, biological, or due to social issues. Treatments for a low libido include medications, supplements, counseling, and lifestyle changes.


Liothyronine

Liothyronine is a medication that is prescribed for treating obesity and also for those suffering from hypothyroidism. Liothyronine is actually a hormone that is produced naturally in the thyroid, and helps with maintaining a nice high metabolism and increasing energy. However, some bodies do not produce enough liothyronine and need to take a supplement to replace it. With hypothyroidism, you have low thyroid function and are likely missing several essential hormones, including liothyronine, which is why it is commonly prescribed to those with this condition. It can also help to treat goiter, which is caused by an enlargement of the thyroid gland.


Low Testosterone

Both men and women have testosterone in their bodies, but low testosterone is usually more of an issue for men. When a man is diagnosed with low testosterone, it means he has severely low levels of the hormone in his blood. Testosterone is considered a sex hormone that is produced naturally in the adrenal glands and testes. It is usually developed during puberty and helps to stimulate growth of sperm, improve his sex drive, and help with muscle mass. Low testosterone is linked to erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and low sperm count. Testosterone hormone therapy is available for men with low testosterone.


Menopause

Menopause is the stage of life for women that occurs when her menstrual periods have stopped for 12 months or longer and this is not tied to other physiological or biological changes. This ends a woman’s fertility and childbearing years. Typically, a woman starts noticing changes in her body and menstrual cycles during the pre-menopause period, which can last months or years before menopause takes full effect. If a woman is still having menstrual cycles, even if they are irregular, she can get pregnant during perimenopause. The treatments for menopause are just to help manage the side effects, which include hot and cold flashes, irritability, and occasionally urinary incontinence.


Milk Thistle

Milk thistle is a type of herb that has been used for natural treatments of medical issues for thousands of years. Also called silybum marianum, milk thistle is native to the Mediterranean and helps improve liver function the most. This is one of the greatest benefits for milk thistle, as it can protect the liver from harming toxins due to environmental and congested pollutants. By taking milk thistle every day, the liver can begin regenerating new, healthy cells that help to clean the liver and reduce gallstones and more serious diseases of the liver. It is available in multiple forms, with a pill supplement being the most common.


Minocycline

Minocycline is a derivative antibiotic of tetracycline and is prescribed mostly for treating moderate to severe acne. It has been prescribed to people suffering from acne for more than 30 years. It doesn’t cure acne but it can help reduce some of the inflammation and side effects caused by severe acne. Usually, someone tries tetracycline for their acne first but if they don’t have a good reaction to it or they don’t respond, doctors then will prescribe them minocycline. It works in two main ways to treat acne, including reducing inflammation, redness, swelling and tenderness of the pimples, and then reducing how much acne is on the skin’s surface.


Nandrolone Decanoate (Deca)

As an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (deca) helps to improve metabolic activity. It is considered the safest steroid available by prescription and is often diagnosed to cancer and AIDS sufferers in order to reduce weakness and treat muscular degeneration. Aside from these serious diseases, nandrolone decanoate is also prescribed for women going through menopause, as well as men or women that have osteoporosis. The typical dose is 50 mg once every three weeks. Some of the effects that occur after taking the drug include improved bone density, stimulating an appetite, and increasing muscle growth. It is excellent for women or men who are going through breast cancer.


Niacin

Niacin is one of the B vitamins that your body needs in order to convert carbohydrates into energy. Also known As B3, niacin helps you improve your appearance by getting healthy skin, hair and nails. It is also a vital way to protect your nervous system and promote a healthy digestive system. Additionally, many people take niacin supplements to help decrease their bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase their good cholesterol (HDL). It is an organic compound that is not only in pill form, but can be found in a variety of healthy foods. If you have been found to have a B-vitamin deficiency, taking this supplement helps tremendously.


Niacin

Niacin is one of the B vitamins that your body needs in order to convert carbohydrates into energy. Also known As B3, niacin helps you improve your appearance by getting healthy skin, hair and nails. It is also a vital way to protect your nervous system and promote a healthy digestive system. Additionally, many people take niacin supplements to help decrease their bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase their good cholesterol (HDL). It is an organic compound that is not only in pill form, but can be found in a variety of healthy foods. If you have been found to have a B-vitamin deficiency, taking this supplement helps tremendously.


Obesity

Obesity is the common term for describing that someone is overweight according to their gender, age and height. To be more specific, someone is obese when they are 20 percent or more over their ideal weight. There are factors that lead to someone’s natural weight, from their build to their height or age. The National Institutes of Health has defined obesity as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or above. The BMI is also determined based on a person’s age, height and weight. There are many different causes of obesity, from lifestyle choices to genetics, medications, and medical conditions. Many options are available for treating obesity.


Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that occurs when the bone mass is reduced. The main cause of osteoporosis is lack of bone protein and calcium and it is more common in older women, especially those who have taken steroidal drugs or women in the post-menopausal stage of life. Men can also get osteoporosis, but it is much less common than with women. With osteoporosis, the bones are very weak and can break and fracture easily. A simple fall without this condition might just bruise the bone, but it can break a bone of someone with fragile bones. Lack of calcium and other nutrients often cause this condition.


Oxandrolone

Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroid that is often prescribed for testosterone therapy and as part of a hormone replacement program for men. If a man has a low testosterone level, it affects his fertility, overall health, and sexual health. With a hormone replacement therapy, multiple hormones or medications are used in order to raise the testosterone level, including oxandrolone. This steroid medication can improve the metabolism to aid in muscle mass and reducing weight, as well as improving energy and endurance and helping with connective tissue repair following an accident o trauma. Men and women may be prescribed oxandrolone to help with osteoporosis.


Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is located in the head and acts as the primary endocrine gland. It is often nicknamed the master gland since it is responsible for producing hormones to control glands and various functions throughout the body. Within the pituitary gland is a posterior pituitary and an anterior pituitary. The front of the pituitary gland is the anterior pituitary, which provides hormones for skin pigmentation, sexual development, and thyroid function. The back of the pituitary gland is the posterior pituitary, which includes oxytocin, a hormone that helps with providing water for the kidney and uterine contractions. Hormones provided by the pituitary gland are important for people of all ages.


Phentermine

The drug phentermine is most often diagnosed to obese patients because it helps with short-term treatment of obesity. Phentermine suppresses the appetite by affecting the brain’s hypothalamus, encouraging it to release norepinephrine. This is a chemical that helps to reduce hunger and cravings. It also has other uses, such as helping to increase adrenaline in the body that breaks down stored fat cells. Most people tolerate phentermine well when taken in low doses and as directed. A small percentage of people experience side effects like hypertension, nausea or vomiting, impotence, libido changes, odd taste in the mouth, diarrhea, rash, acne, euphoria, restlessness, or dry mouth.


Phentermine

The drug phentermine is most often diagnosed to obese patients because it helps with short-term treatment of obesity. Phentermine suppresses the appetite by affecting the brain’s hypothalamus, encouraging it to release norepinephrine. This is a chemical that helps to reduce hunger and cravings. It also has other uses, such as helping to increase adrenaline in the body that breaks down stored fat cells. Most people tolerate phentermine well when taken in low doses and as directed. A small percentage of people experience side effects like hypertension, nausea or vomiting, impotence, libido changes, odd taste in the mouth, diarrhea, rash, acne, euphoria, restlessness, or dry mouth.


Pregnenolone

Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone medication that helps to balance missing hormones in the body,particularly when there is a high cortisol level. While many hormone issues are due to having a lack of sufficient hormones, too high of hormone levels also needs to be treated. Pregnenolone is usually prescribed before other steroid hormones as a building block to proper hormone therapy. When someone takes pregnelonone, it is converted to progesterone or DHEA, which can then convert it to hormones like estrogen or testosterone. This is a vital steroid hormone for proper hormone production.


Progesterone

Progesterone is a hormone replacement drug that is given to patients for a variety of uses. It is often given to improve fertility, improve the skin as a moisturizer for dry skin, work as a mild diuretic, provide anti-depressant properties, help the thymus gland, and relieve arthritis. It can also help women maintain a healthy pregnancy when they are at risk, improve the heart, and help with proper brain function. It is a vital hormone to have in the body for women. One of the most common uses for progesterone is to treat the symptoms and side effects associated with menopause, such as agitation, irritability, hot flashes, chills, and behavioral changes.


Receptor

Receptor has many different definitions, but for cell biology, it describes the structure and surface of a cell as it binds to a substance. The body has multiple types of receptors, including one for low-density lipoproteins, and another one for insulin. The messenger receptor is vital to the body because it sends messages of pain to the brain. Without it, someone could be facing severe injuries or medical conditions they weren’t aware of since pain is the first warning sign that something is wrong. Receptors also send other messages throughout the body, including for tissue response, electrical changes in various cells, and helping the body to respond to medications.


Reshape

The drug called Reshape is a combination drug that can be used for multiple purposes, but is primarily made to help with weight loss. It aids in weight loss by suppressing the appetite and curbing hunger cravings as the patient tries to lose weight by eating less. At the same time, Reshape helps the person to retain their muscle mass even while losing weight. The last combination effect of the drug is that it has a thermogenic effect to help increase the body’s core temperature, which in turn increases the metabolism. As you get cold, you start shivering, which is actually increasing your metabolism and energy. This is partly why Reshape works so well for weight loss.


Saw Palmetto

Saw palmetto is a plant extract that is commonly used by natural health physicians to treat urinary tract inflammation, cough, testicular inflammation, and respiratory congestion. The extract comes from a plant called the saw palmetto fan palm, which has dark purple berries where saw palmetto is extracted from. This plant grows primarily in southern California and other coastal regions of the southern United States. Aside from helping with inflammation, saw palmetto can be taken to help suppress the appetite, improve indigestion, balance the metabolism levels, and improve the thyroid gland. It is one of the most popular supplements for adults between 50 and 76.


Sex Hormone-binding Globuli (SHBG)

The sex hormone-binding globulin, or SHBG, is a type of protein called glycoprotein. It is a protein that can bind to different sex hormones in men and women, including estradiol and testosterone. Hormones like cortisol, progesterone and additional cortisteroids are actually bound by transcortin, not SHBG. With SHBG, production occurs mostly in the liver, after which it is released directly into the bloodstream. The protein can also be produced in the placenta, uterus, brain, and testes. If it is produced in the testes, it is called an androgen-binding protein. The level of SHBG in the body determines the availability of sex hormones. Replacing SHBG is important if there is lack of hormones like estradiol or testosterone.


Sermorelin

Sermorelin is a growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) that is usually produced naturally in the brain to encourage growth hormones to be produced in the pituitary gland. When sermorelin is prescribed as a supplement, it is usually for someone that lacks the proper growth hormones and has a condition called adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD). It is usually during puberty when GHRH is produced by the pituitary gland, offering proper growth hormones for this important stage of life. If there looks to be a lack of the hormones, sermorelin is prescribed to help replace the missing growth hormones.


Stanozolol

Stanozolol is a mild anabolic steroid that is prescribed to help with hormone replacement therapy for individuals lacking a proper amount of testosterone in their body. The supplement comes in pill form and has various doses, including 3 mg, 10 mg, and 25 mg. There are also injections available under the name Stanozolol Suspension. Doses are usually low for this steroid in order to avoid certain side effects, like irritability, hot flashes, headaches, and stomach upset. It is also used to treat angioedema, which is a hereditary condition that causes swelling in the genitals, bowel wall, throat, and face. The drug helps to reduce the frequency of severity of the swelling episodes.


Steroids

The term steroid is one not often understood completely. The definition of a steroid is a variety of organic compound. It is found in a wide range of medications and supplements, including sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, anti-inflammatory drugs, and cholesterol. There are steroids found naturally in animals, plants and fungi as well. Steroids in mammals come from the cells in the sterol lanosterol. The main sources of steroids are progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and estrogen. Estrogen and progesterone are produced in the placenta and ovaries, while testosterone is produced in the testes mainly. There are even vitamins that are considered steroids, such as vitamin D.


Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is a drug that helps block estrogen being produced in the body and to treat men who are struggling with gynocomastia. With gynocomastia, the male is growing large breast tissue, and likely wants to stop growth and reduce the size of his breasts. Tamoxifen is an estrogen receptor that can stop the growth of the hormone estrogen, which is responsible for the growth of breast tissue. It is classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which can sit in the estrogen receptors of breast cells, therefore blocking them from growing and multiplying. There are also other estrogen receptors in the body, but this drug only blocks the breast tissue structure.


Testes

Testes are the male sex organs that are just behind the penis. They are protected by a thick layer of skin called the scrotum. The testes’ main function is to produce sperm and store it, as well as being home to male hormones. Hormones like testosterone are in the testes and control male characteristics, including wide shoulders, enhancing his fertility, giving his a lower voice during puberty, and growing facial and body hair. The testes can move within the scrotum, but each has a thin cord attached to it that passes through the pelvis into the abdomen. The cord is there to carry sperm and ejaculate from the testes through the urethra.


Testosterone

Testosterone is the primary male hormone that is produced in the testes and develops male characteristics, including his build, sperm production, voice, and body or facial hair. Of all the androgens that occur naturally in the body, testosterone is the most potent. In general, the higher the amount of testosterone, the better the man’s health is. It helps not just with his sex characteristics, but testosterone is linked to lower blood pressure, low cholesterol, and prevention of heart disease. However, extremely high levels can be linked to smoking and aggressiveness. For low levels of testosterone, testosterone hormone replacement therapy is needed.


Testosterone Cypionate

Testosterone cypionate is a type of androgen and anabolic steroid that is injected into the body. The primary use of testosterone cypionate is to treat a condition called hypogonadism, where there is a lack of sexual hormones being produced in the sexual organs. This injection has the hormone testosterone in it, which can help provide anabolic characteristics for the patient. It helps with regeneration of red blood cells, speeds up recovery following trauma or illness, and improves the patient’s muscle mass and weight loss. It is also important for developing sex characteristics and male sex organs.


Testosterone Enanthate

To treat hypogonadism, there is an androgen and anabolic injection called testosterone enanthate, which helps replace missing hormones, particularly estrogen in males. With this injectable drug, it encourages biosynthesis needed for testosterone-related anabolic characteristics. Like other forms of testosterone treatment, it helps the individual burn body fat and lose weight, increase their muscle mass and buildup, speed up regeneration of cells, and allow red blood cell formations to increase in the body. Anyone that lacks a proper amount of testosterone in their gonads have a condition called hypogonadism, which is treated with testosterone enanthate.


Testosterone Propionate

Testosterone propionate is an injectable anabolic and androgen testosterone replacement medication. Men that are not producing testosterone on their own have a condition called hypogonadism. This has a negative effect on their male sex characteristics, lack of sperm, and lack of proper sexual development during puberty. Testosterone propionate needs to be injected rather than congested, so it needs to be administered by a physician. Only get this drug administered by a doctor and no more than once a week. The dosage depends on your current testosterone levels, medical conditions, and how you respond to the first few treatments.


Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Testosterone replacement therapy is needed for men who are not producing a sufficient amount of the testosterone hormone. There are different reasons why their bodies are not producing this hormone, including certain medical conditions or diseases, medications, injury, or simply not producing the hormone at all. For testosterone replacement therapy, there are different ways to administer the hormone, including through oral pills, patch, and IV. The dosing depends on a number of factors, including the current level of testosterone, physical health, and how the body reacts to certain doses. If the dose is too low, it won’t be effective, but if it is too high, the man might struggle with severe side effects.


Testosterone Suspension

Testosterone suspension is a type of hormone replacement therapy drug that is prescribed to men who are struggling with hypogonadism. Hypogonadism is a condition where testosterone is either not being produced at all, or it is not produced enough. Testosterone helps with burning body fat, building muscle mass, improving recovery time, and helping regeneration and formation of red blood cells. Testosterone suspension can have some severe side effects if not dosed properly, so doctors go through various steps when determining how much of the drug to administer. This will depend on current development of testosterone, other medications, age, weight, health condition, and previous reaction to similar drugs.


Thermogenesis

Thermogenesis is the term used for producing heat in organisms, which can be achieved organically or through artificial methods. People that have a fluctuation in weight often use thermogenic substances to control it. It works by increasing the metabolic rate in the body, which then increases the temperature of the individual. Thermogenics are often used in the dieting industry in weight loss pills and protein drinks. One of the natural ways to increase body temperature and metabolism is by shivering, which is done naturally when the body gets too cold. If this is not sufficient, thermogenesis is needed to increase the body temperature.


Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

TSH, or the thyroid stimulating hormone, is a hormone naturally produced in the pituitary gland. This gland is located in the brain within the hypothalamus gland. TSH helps increase the production of the thyroid gland that is in the neck in order to stimulate the growth of thyroid hormones. If there are too many hormones being produced in the thyroid gland, it can stop the pituitary gland from producing more TSH, which then reduces proper thyroid hormone production. With the thyroid stimulating hormone, the growth and production of hormones is more regulated.


Triamterene

Triamterene is a 37.5 mg tablet that is a potassium-sparing diuretic. The main reason it is prescribed is to help treat hypertension and water retention. Known as a water pill, Triamterene can help prevent too much salt from forming in the body and keep potassium levels from dropping too much. It is consistently prescribed to patients with edema, also known as fluid retention, which occurs when you have nephrotic syndrome of the kidney, congestive heart failure, or cirrhosis of the liver. There are also some patients who have edema as a result of too much aldosterone being product in the body, which Triamterene also helps to treat.


Viagra

Viagra, also known as sildenafil, is a drug given to men who are having problems with sexual activity. This is often the result of age-related impotence or erectile dysfunction caused by age, genetics, medications, or medical conditions. Many men with sexual dysfunction are taking anti-depressants or have diabetes and need the drug to get and keep an erection for sexual activity with their partner. Viagra is the most popular brand name drug for this problem, and works by increasing blood flow to the penis in order to get an erection. It can also reduce stress to the arteries, lower blood pressure, and improve overall blood circulation. It has also been given to people who get altitude sickness when flying.


Valine

Valine is one of the essential amino acids needed in your daily dietary regimen. It is one of the building blocks for protein and helps with burning fat, building muscle, and for proper balance of nitrogen in the body. Valine will need to be ingested as it is not produced naturally in the body. Dietary essential amino acids must be consumed through drink or food sources, or as dietary supplements. Valine comes through plants during a multi-step process that begins with pyruvic acid, which then can lead to leucine. It is one of three branches in a chain of amino acids, each of which provide important anabolic effects on the person’s body.


Whey Protein

Whey protein is often used by body builders and anyone that is trying to get in more protein for better muscle mass and increased stamina during workouts. Whey protein is actually a combination of globular proteins that are isolated from the byproduct of cheese production. Whey is very gentle on the body and can be digested quickly and easily, making it ideal for a pre-workout drink. It also helps muscle builders rapidly build muscle mass when they add the protein to their daily shakes. It can also help after workouts to help increase amino acids in the blood to keep the muscles working even after the workout is complete. Additionally, whey protein helps with rebuilding and repairing muscle tissues.


Yohimbe

Yohimbe, previously called corynanthe yohimbe, is a plant that has psychoactive properties and works as a natural aphrodisiac. The name yohimbe comes from the tree of the same name that is found in several countries, including Gabon, Cameroon, and Zaire. Within the plant is a chemical known as yohimbine, which is frequently used in herbal remedies and by natural health practitioners. The primary use of yohimbe is as an aphrodisiac as it can help provide arousal for men suffering from sexual issues like impotence or erectile dysfunction. It is especially useful when erectile dysfunction is caused by anti-depressants or other medications, as it does not interfere with these medications. It can also be used to improve energy levels and lose weight.


Zinc

Zinc is one of the most essential minerals to have in the body for men and women, primarily in men. It helps with different functions of the body, including having antioxidant benefits for the immune system, and being linked to the production of testosterone in men. Zinc is a metal known as an essential trace element that are needed for proper overall health in humans. As children, zinc helps with wound healing, and aids in diarrhea and slow growth. It is also great for fighting off infections and the common cold, as well as helping with nighttime blindness and infertility issues.